As the ammonia in the water begins to reduce, the secondary break down product, nitrite will begin to increase and this is also very poisonous to fish.
Nitrite is a skin irritant and will cause the fish to display symptoms of irritability such as rubbing themselves, jumping, or even skimming across the surface of the pond. These symptoms are also commonly associated with parasites and it is sensible to eliminate nitrite as the cause before treating the pond.
Nitrite also has a rather sinister effect on the pond fishes blood, as it will bind very tightly with the red pigment and thereby preventing the blood cells from absorbing vital oxygen from the water. Once the nitrite has become associated with the red pigment, it turns the blood a dull brown color and hence the popular name for nitrite poisoning is "brown blood disease".
A second group of micro-organisms, comprising mostly species of Nitrobacter bacteria are responsible for breaking down the nitrite into nitrate, which is the final breakdown product but in the event of high nitrite levels occurring in the pond, regular partial water changes need to be undertaken to reduce the concentration of this pollutant.
Nitrite is an odorless, colorless substance and its presence can be detected using a Test Kit
Alkalinity, often referred to as -carbonate hardness, or German carbonate hardness, is the measure of carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in your aquarium water. Alkalinity is a measure of the...(click on product image for more details)
Where does the ammonia originate from
Pond fish produce waste in the form of ammonia, which is released into the water through the gills. Ammonia can also originate from the dead and decaying plant...(click on product image for more details)
Acceptable concentration 0
A gas widely used in the disinfection of water and as an oxidizing agent for organic matter, manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide.
Chlorine is known to react with...(click on product image for more details)
Sometimes referred to as an algae bloom, Another factor which can influence the pH of the water is the presence of plants, most notably if there is an algae bloom in the pond. During the hours of...(click on product image for more details)
Nitrate is the final product from the breakdown of ammonia released by the fish.
Nitrate is not especially harmful to freshwater fish but is a potent plant fertilizer and can...(click on product image for more details)
The pH is in all respects a measure of acidity and alkalinity, pH 0 - 6.99 is acid- pH 7.0 is regarded as neutral and pH 7.01 - 14.0 is alkaline. On the whole the pH is not generally a problem but it...(click on product image for more details)
Common salt, Sodium Chloride -NaCl- is commonly used in the health care and maintenance of fishes especially Koi. Salt is useful in treating parasites. It will eliminate seven out of nine parasites that...(click on product image for more details)
Partial water change outs can reduce the amount of anything dissolved in the water but not totally remove it. Although it is sometimes necessary, draining and refilling a pond should only be used as a...(click on product image for more details)